Associations of Deciles of Orange Juice Consumption with Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight in Children Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2016 Data
Author(s): Carol E O’Neil, Theresa A Nicklas, Victor L Fulgoni
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among deciles of orange juice (OJ) consumption with nutrient intake,
diet quality, fruit consumption, and weight parameters in children 2-8 and 9-18 years participating in the National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey 2003-2016.
Methods: Intake was determined using 24-hour dietary recalls. Primary analyses were based on linear regression of deciles of OJ on energy;
nutrients; diet quality, determined by the Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI); fruit consumption; and weight parameters: weight, body mass
index z-score, and percent overweight and obese. Subjects were separated into two age groups: 2-8 and 9-18 years; consumption of OJ
was categorized by 10 deciles. All analyses were adjusted for complex sampling design of NHANES and incorporated appropriate sample
weights as recommended by the NHANES analytical guidelines; and were performed using SAS release 9.4. Significance was p <0.01 for
Results: Energy and nutrient intake varied among age groups; except those 2-8 years, energy showed a positive linear association with decile
of OJ consumption. Most nutrients, including dietary fiber, folate DFE, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, and potassium showed a positive
linear association for all age groups. There was no positive linear association with added sugars in any of the age groups. Total HEI scores and
the total fruit subcomponent also showed a positive linear association in all age groups. In separate analyses, there were no linear associations
with whole fruit in any age group, although there was for total fruit and fruit juice. There was no association for any of the weight parameters
in any age group.
Conclusion: Consumption of OJ should be encouraged by children as part of an overall healthy diet, since it improves nutrient intake and
diet quality and is not associated with weight parameters.