Gut and Gastroenterology


Clinical, Paraclinical and Etiological Aspects of Ascites in an Internal Medicine Department in Dakar, Senegal

Author(s): D Dia, MN Guèye, M Youm, G Diouf, CAB Cisse, M Mbengue

Introduction: Data on the characteristics of ascites in Senegal are rare. The aim of this study was to determine the socio-demographic aspects of patients with ascites in an Internal Medicine department in Senegal and to specify the clinical, Paraclinical and etiological presentation. 
Patients and method: This was a 12-month descriptive and longitudinal study. All hospitalized patients with ascite confirmed by ultrasound and fluid aspiration were included. Patients in whom chemical and cytological results of the ascite fluid were not obtained were excluded. Clinical signs, results of the cytochemical and bacteriological exam of the ascitic liquid and findings from radiological exams and endoscopic investigations were noted as well as the etiologies. 
Results:Prevalence of ascite was 11.6%; our analyzes included 61 patients with mean age 44 years (range 16 and 86 years) and sex ratio 1.3 (35 men). The most frequent reasons for hospitalization were ascite (86.8%), jaundice (37.7%) and abdominal pain (29.5%). Ascites were of great abundance in 45.9% of cases, mean in 42.6% of cases and low in 11.5% of cases; macroscopic features were yellow citrine (72.1%), sero-hematic (17.7%), hazy (6.5%) and chylous (1.6 %). It was a transudate in 52% of cases. Etiologies were dominated by cirrhosis (52.5%), peritoneal Carcinomatosis (24.6%) and peritoneal tuberculosis (14.8%). Cirrhosis was of viral origin in 84.3% of cases. 
Conclusion: Ascite is a common symptom in patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine department in Senegal. The patients are relatively young and the clinical and Paraclinical presentations are polymorphous. The etiologies are dominated by cirrhosis, peritoneal Carcinomatosis and peritoneal tuberculosis.

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