Journal of Neurology and Neuro Toxicology

Guillain-Barré Syndrome associated with COVID-19 infection: A Case report and Review of Literature

Author(s): Lootah M, Sarathchandran P

Objective: Guillain–Barré syndrome is an acute, autoimmune, polyneuropathy that is often related to a previous infectious exposure. A surge of case reports around the world have identified a relationship between the occurrence of Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) and a history of a recent coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. Here we report a case of GBS associated with COVID-19 infection seen in our Neurology department, Dubai, United Arab Emirates. 
Clinical Presentation: A 64-year-old man presented with five days history of fever and respiratory symptoms after which he developed acute progressive ascending lower limb weakness and numbness. He developed these symptoms within a week of testing positive for COVID-19. Nerve conduction study findings were consistent of severe generalized, mixed, mainly axonal sensori-motor poly radiculo-neuropathy. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for a total of five days and showed significant improvement. 
Conclusion: The diagnosis of GBS should be considered in known COVID-19 patients who develop weakness or sensorineural findings during the course of their illness, despite the presence of fever and respiratory symptoms at the onset of neurological symptoms. Though the syndrome is generally considered to be rare, early diagnosis and intervention can significantly improve outcomes and reduce the need of ventilatory support. The strength of the association of COVID-19 and GBS is still unclear but a high index of suspicion should be maintained during this pandemic.

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